Virginia Woolf, one of the most influential writers of the 20th century, is widely known for her innovative approach to narrative structure, particularly her experiments with time. Her works, such as "To the Lighthouse" and "Mrs. Dalloway," showcase Woolf's ability to weave together multiple perspectives and perceptions of time to create a rich, complex reading experience that defies traditional notions of linearity and causality. Virginia Woolf's experiments with time revolutionized the modernist literary tradition.
Time In “Mrs. Dalloway”
The first thing to know about Woolf's writing is her use of stream of consciousness, a narrative technique that attempts to capture the unbroken flow of thoughts and impressions that make up our experience of reality. In "Mrs. Dalloway," for instance, Woolf uses this technique to interweave the thoughts and perceptions of various characters over the course of a single day, showing how their lives intersect and overlap in unexpected ways. This creates a fragmented, nonlinear narrative that mirrors the chaotic nature of human consciousness, where past and present, memory and perception, are constantly colliding and overlapping.
Time In “To The Lighthouse”
Woolf's experiments with time go beyond the use of stream of consciousness, however. In "To the Lighthouse," Woolf plays with the traditional structure of the novel, eschewing the linear, chronological narrative in favour of a more impressionistic, subjective approach. The novel is divided into three parts: "The Window," "Time Passes," and "The Lighthouse." Each section covers a different period of time, but there is no clear sense of how much time has passed between them. For instance, the first section covers a single day, while the second covers a span of years, and the third takes place ten years later. The effect is disorienting, as readers are forced to piece together the events of the novel from scattered fragments of memory and perception.
Time As A Device Of Consciousness
This nonlinear approach to time is not merely a stylistic choice, however. Woolf was interested in exploring the ways in which time is experienced subjectively, how it is shaped by our memories and emotions. In "To the Lighthouse," the characters are haunted by the past, particularly the death of Mrs. Ramsay, the matriarch of the family. The novel is structured around their attempts to come to terms with this loss, but their efforts are constantly frustrated by the impermanence of memory and the shifting, unpredictable nature of time. Woolf's use of nonlinear time reflects this sense of fragmentation and uncertainty, as the characters struggle to make sense of their lives in the face of the impermanence of memory and the transience of time.
The Politics Of Time
In Mrs. Dalloway, Woolf places the narrator in different characters who experience time differently. Peter Walsh, for example, most of the time lives in the past. Similarly, Septimus Smith experiences time differently from others. Septimus belongs to the marginal group of shell-shocked soldiers from World War I. Due to the shell shock time moved slow for him and was interrupted by the ‘normal’ world around. Woolf’s narrative, hence, places this marginal character in the centre.
Woolf's experiments with time are not limited to her novels, however. In her essay "A Room of One's Own," she explores the relationship between time and gender, arguing that women have been historically excluded from the literary canon and how “a woman thinks through her mothers”(1.). She points out that time is a precious resource for writers, particularly women, who have historically been denied the leisure and financial independence necessary to pursue creative pursuits. The essay is structured as a series of vignettes, each of which takes place at a different time and in a different location, creating a collage-like effect that mirrors the fragmented nature of memory and perception.
Our experience of time is actually our experience of life. Woolf's interest in the subjective experience of time was influenced by the philosopher Henri Bergson, who argued that time is not a fixed, objective quantity, but rather a fluid entity where past and present keep flowing into each other. Bergson's philosophy was a major influence on Woolf as well as the modernist movement, which sought to break with traditional modes of representation and explore the ways in which our perceptions of reality are shaped by our experiences.
From the text of A Room of One’s Own, by Virginia Woolf.
All images via Wikimedia Commons
Written by Prachi Rautela